Kosovo


Thursday Thirteen

I modified my last post from 24th March into TT post cause I think it should be exposed to wider blogging audience. So here it is:
1. Last night I went in bed with huge smile on my face. It was amazing watching how Serbs Ana Ivanović and Novak Djoković have took titles in Pacific Life Open in Indian Wells! Serbian fans on the stadium wore “NOLE, ANA, JELENA” t-shirts, this time no one has been punished but the banner “Kosovo is Serbia” has been confiscated, on the grounds that the banner was a political statement (I guess “Texas is USA” would be taken in the same way). Novak made a taped speech last month for a rally in Belgrade in which he spoke against Kosovo’s independence.

Ana & Novak

 

2. “The people who know my past and they understand what I’m saying — my father and my aunt, my uncle all grew up there. They were born in Kosovo and my family used to live there for 30 years. I was there many times. So it kind of touched me in that moment that this was my quest to give support by my country.” said Djoković.

3. Last week, the swimmer Milorad Čavić, who was born in California to Serbian parents, was barred from the European championships after wearing a T-shirt that said “Kosovo is Serbia,” in Cyrillic letters, at the medal ceremony after winning the 50-meter butterfly. “I’m really sad to hear about this. It’s hard because we are athletes and trying to do the best we can on the court and promote our country in the best possible way,” Ivanović said about the Čavić’s case (I wrote about that HERE).

4. And it was fantastic to see those youngsters who have managed to conquer hearts of so many people all around the world.

5. And then this morning I’m turning on my radio expecting to hear news from tennis court I was frozen by the sound of air raid emergency siren! It was horrible flash back and it took me few moments to realize that today is 9th anniversary of the NATO War of aggression against Serbia.

6. I remember that day I didn’t want to leave my flat in Belgrade naively believed that international law is supreme value and that no one will attack sovereign European country without permission of the Security Council UNO (the only institution which has mandate to bring that decision). Moreover I didn’t believe it’s possible that NATO will broke its own statute which said that alliance will go in military action only if the country, member of the alliance is jeopardized by some third (non member) country. But then I simply didn’t think that international law doesn’t exist if USA wants that.

7. So I decided to leave Belgrade to calm my parents and I remember my shock when I arrived on the main bus station which has been completely covered with people sleeping with their luggage on the floor. It was impossible to reach the counters. My god I never saw anything like this before.

8. Anyhow that evening I was visiting my friend, drinking coffee and chatting about something trivial and in one moment we stopped talking. “Was that detonation?” and soon after that we heard air raid sirens. It was unbelievable.

9. 78 days of bombing killed about 3000 civilians; destroyed infrastructure of the country; helped Milosević’s regime to achieve what he couldn’t for so long: kill free press, put in jail everyone who was publicly expressing different political opinion; put citizens in total misery.

10. Official cause for bombing was massacre in the village of Racak. After bombing UN commission of forensics and pathologists confirmed that there was no massacre. Those bodies were in unnaturally positions in the cloths that don’t match the wounds on the body. It was confirmed what Serbs officials were claim that those are terrorists dressed post mortem in the civilian clothes. Naturally that was irrelevant. Of course now we see the true purpose of NATO aggression: making Kosovo independent.

11.

12. One might think 9 years would be enough for wounds to heal but I don’t think that will ever happen. When I heard sirens this morning I couldn’t pick up myself entire morning. 9 years and yet, as if it was yesterday. No I wasn’t afraid, I wasn’t afraid during the bombing neither. I never went in shelter or something like that. I was in despair and filled with anger and in the same time incapable to do anything. And that state of mind is worse than anything you can imagine. This morning I realized that state of mind is somewhere inside me, waiting to be awaken.

13. If you were me, would you be able to forgive? (is this question makes me a bad person, or at least a bad Christian? If so, I’m wondering where is the limit of human ability to forgive?)

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CavicEuro champ Milorad Čavić, Serbian swimmer has been banned from European Swimming Championship in Eindhoven and became first sportsmen in the history who has been banned from the competition by the LEN because of the issue other than doping.

His ‘crime’ was to wear a t-shirt declaring that ‘Kosovo is Serbia’ (in Serbian language and Cyrillic letters) when on the podium receiving his gold medal for the 50m butterfly, in a European record of 23.11 (beating his own record from semifinal); A letter of protest was received from “an unnamed party” and of course he has to be punished because t-shirt “contained a political message”. LEN officials even said that he violated rules by carrying Serbian flag on podium completely neglecting that organizers didn’t have Serbian flag on medal ceremony and that they have used reversed Russian flag which is not the same as current Serbian.
It is amazing how politics of double standards is applied on every field!

The European swimming governing body (LEN) didn’t do anything after scandal in the final match of European Water polo Championship in Slovenia 2003 when the Serbian players and fans including President Boris Tadić and minister of foreign affairs Goran Svilanović were brutally attacked! They even had to jump in the pool to save their heads. The match was between Serbia and Croatia and since the Serbs were targeted no punishment was necessary.

I’m not person who is thinking about secret conspiracies and I could understand this might sound paranoid but there are simply too much similarities!

Without expressing my political opinion and intention to offend anyone I’m wondering would you react the same if the message was “Free Tibet” or “Flanders is not Belgium” or even “Kosovo is Independent”? Or, since Čavić is Serb born in USA and lives in Florida what if he had won gold for US and wore the same t-shirt? Surely nothing like this would happened.

Lets think if they had to punish him was it necessary so drastically? 7000 euros for Serbian Swimming Organization and official warning wasn’t enough? Or was his potential the main criteria in making this shameful decision? Namely (with best result) he was the main candidate for gold in 100m butterfly; the other discipline was 100m freestyle.Cavic

“I’m afraid of the worst,” Čavić told The Associated Press in Thursday. “A suspension is the worst they can do to me. That is the death sentence.” And of course they heard him.

“What is my wearing a shirt going to do to change the minds of the United States, United Nations or European Union,” he said. “This is already a done deal. All I wanted to do was uplift my people. My only role here was to be a leader and transfer positive energy. I didn’t do it to provoke anger, I didn’t do it to provoke violence,” Čavić said. “The country is torn apart and . . . my goal was just to uplift them.”

And you did, Milorad. I’m horribly sorry for the price you are paying and hope you’ll be able to stay focused on Beijing. After this maybe even more!

Good luck and thank you!

Four years ago, on March 17th 2004 the biggest attack on Serbs since arrival of international UN peacekeeper troops has happened. Attacks on Serbian enclaves and mass destruction of their properties were apparently surprised international forces and their reaction was too late and too weak. During this ethnic cleansing 4000 Serbs have been banned from Kosovo, 19 people lost their lives; 6 towns and 9 villages were completely ethnically cleaned. 800 houses has been destroyed and 35 churches/monasteries and 18 cultural monuments.

“Cause” for this attack was campaign of Albanian media against Serbs who have been accused for death of three Albanian boys who have drowned in the Ibar river. Investigation performed by UNMIK showed that those accusations were false.

March 2004 part 1

March 2004 part 2

Four years later investigation is not over; organizers of the ethnic cleansing are still free. Reconstruction of damaged houses is minor.

And today, on the anniversary KFOR has manifested its power against Serbian clerks in the court of Kosovska Mitrovica. Few days ago Serbian clerks have taken court building demanding to reestablish rule of law; they wanted to go back and start work again. They protested in a front of the court since 21st Feb and since the officials were deaf they managed to enter in the building last Friday. Of course now is clear why they didn’t have any difficulties then. What have happened today was planned from a start. Of course it was completely unnecessary.

This morning at 5.30 am soldiers were broke windows were the clerks slept, they tied them refusing any talk, took their cell phones and arrested them. I should tell you that those clerks are middle aged people who worked in juridical bureaucracy which means that any force was unnecessary. But of course since they were watching ethnic cleansing four years ago and done nothing KFOR decided to use an extra force today.

Naturally when Serbs in the town found out what is going on in the Court building they surrounded it demanding to let go arrested people.

More than 100 people are injured mostly of shock bombs, tear gas and explosions.

What a proper anniversary! UN forces are forcing democracy indeed; who needs law in the presence of peacekeepers anyway!

The Sad ClownI just came back in town after about two weeks of isolation from news. Now I’m supposed to pick up pieces of normality in my life and try to live, right? Oh but that will not be that easy. Namely political situation is just as if it was in the early nineties: economy is in mess, stock market too; inflation is jumping every day; radicalism is awake; people are so furious and angry and (the latest in the line) government fell. What a perfect place to be normal! And all that in only two weeks!

Oh, Europe is constantly saying how Serbia is its friend and how Serbia has its place in European Union. They are willing to help us on every step, of course if we chose Europe. Now after this, I’m afraid we will not chose Europe. Not that I want that, on the contrary but Europe has done everything to provoke rising of blood pressure to every common citizen in Serbia whenever they hear word “Europe”! Oh but the point is that Europe is our friend who wants to help us, right?

Well I’ll try to make the picture about European offer clearer:
Imagine a man who has found a homeless frozen girl on the street and he offers her help. He could put her in one SAFE House (Violence Shelter) where is warm and where she’ll get bed and food and where she’ll be able to stay as long as necessary. And girl of course accepts his offer willingly BUT there’s a catch: since SAFE House is only for victims of violence he must beat her and rape her and after that there’ll be no problem for her to be under protection.

Nice isn’t it? Would you accept that offer? Well that is exactly what Europe is doing to Serbia: constantly is speaking about historical friendship with Serbia and their will to help but … there’s a catch!

And how live normal life? How going to work, study, how not thinking what if phone ring in 3 am and the pissed voice said “let’s throw some bombs there! We’ll find excuse later in the morning”? That wouldn’t be the first time anyway.

I surely try to stop fighting against windmills by reading and commenting posts about Kosovo and history of this region on other blogs. The latest experience with that was Mr. Cheeseburger 9000, guy who is pro Kosovo independence (which is quite legitimate of course) and whose blog I left after I saw his comment about organized atrocities against Serbs and their homes and cultural heritage in March 2004 where he was justifying it. I did “protest” about it and he said that he didn’t mean that but even though that was just too much. Until two weeks ago when I posted my comment about some other issue in which I explained why I think his arguments are unbelievable (among other things he said that since the violation of the law has been committed we shouldn’t mentioning anymore! It’s done so there’s no point insisting on that) and replied about his insults. I’m quite aware my positions and I’m trying to stand with both feet on the ground but I just had to react when I see injustice. Of course I lost and people like Mr. Cheeseburger 9000 have won and I said that in my comment so they can celebrate and be happy toward my despair (I said that as well). I’m not ashamed cause I’m in grief.
But then I guess my comment was just too much for him (I was polite so I’m not sure what was the reason). I guess Mr. Cheeseburger 9000 saw his own reflection in my comment and what he saw wasn’t pretty and so he decided not to publish my comment! Really I couldn’t believe it. It was so immature. And then what’s the point to allow comments at all? To be honest I was surprise cause I didn’t expect that but hey, he has all right to do that. After all it’s his blog.

So as you can see there’s no point fight against windmills. They will understand the message (otherwise he would publish my comment) but even though they will continue to go in the same direction. This kind of people is something I don’t wanna have anything with.

So, normality? It will be very hard. Maybe it would be the easiest to spread the legs, close eyes and try to enjoy thinking about all warmth and food that are waiting in the SAFE House. If you can’t avoid to be raped then at least try to enjoy in sex, right? But then how to look yourself tomorrow? How to bear to see your image in the mirror? That would not be something you can censored from publishing on your blog and keep on living like nothing happened.

agnus dei

 

I’ve loaned this title from Svetlana of Byzantine Sacred Art Blog because precisely the same gradation was on my mind after reading headlines of the world news agencies about yesterday’s riot in Belgrade against Kosovo independence.

Linking USA policy with hypocrisy is nothing new but statement of the US ambassador in UN Mr. Khalilzad how he is “outraged by the mob attack against US embassy in Belgrade as a sovereign US territory. The government of Serbia has a responsibility under international law to protect diplomatic facilities, particularly embassies.” as a shamelessly clear expression of the politics of double standards really makes you wonder is there any boundary? Your embassy is sovereign US territory and its protection is guaranteed by international law but 15% of territory of the sovereign country, its cultural, historical, spiritual heart is somehow not enough sovereign so that the same international law and its guaranties can be applied to?

Precisely that kind of US politic towards Serbian nation in last almost 15 years has led to this explosion of anger. Indeed few hundreds of Serbian rioters have yesterday night attacked and torched US embassy in Belgrade. Don’t get me wrong, I’m not happy because of that and to be honest I’m not happy because it’s my town (not because it’s US territory). But again don’t get me wrong, I absolutely understand why they have attacked it. We have reminders on that just across the street for almost a decade. In the same street where is US embassy are few enormous buildings in ruins, destroyed by US and their NATO allies during aggression against Serbia.

And if we were thought that all those sufferings were over after the aggression we were so wrong. US government continued to reassures us every day, and we continued to pay the price. We are the only country who extradited its (ex) president (I’m not talking about his moral qualifications now) to express our dedication to democracy and justice and international law but that wasn’t enough. We lost our prime minister who has been assassinated precisely because his dedication toward those same values but again that wasn’t enough. You are taking Kosovo and Metohija from us expecting that we’ll accept that calmly like all those previous payments; that we’ll be silent like a lamb before slaughtering?

Mr. Khalilzad said he will “ask the 15-member Security Council to issue a unanimous statement expressing its outrage, condemning the attack and also reminding Serb government of its responsibility.” And Security Council has precisely done that. The SAME Council that US has avoid to start NATO aggression against Serbia supporting terrorist organization the KLA, turning lives of dozen million into a nightmare, destroying infrastructure, killing so many people! The SAME Council that has been avoided just yesterday in the process of recognizing Kosovo independence, while precisely the Council is the only legitimate institution who has right to do that!

Mr. Khalilzad is mentioning protection of the international law. Which one Mr. Khalilzad? Because apparently there are few international laws depending who’s a judge and who’s sitting in the dock.
All animals are equal but some animals are more equal than others”
, right Mr. Khalilzad?

Kosovo is Serbia 21st Feb 2008

 

Sadly we, the other 500.000 (according to BBC reporters) people on the demonstrations and later on the moleban (Christian liturgy for Kosovo salvation) were not enough interesting news. You can’t expect from us to shut and bear all insults and injustice for years. There is a limit and you have reached it. But then as someone said yesterday:
“We Serbs know how to forgive, if we have whom to forgive”

Thursday Thirteen

1. Today I received an e-mail from a friend as his reaction about my previous blog post about Kosovo secession from Serbia. This isn’t nearly easy thing to write and I don’t have clear concept so forgive me if this TT is a little bit chaotic.

2. Few months ago I stopped to post comments on blogs about Kosovo independence after I received more/less same comments. Namely while debating with the authors, on their question what argument Serbia has I was answering “International Law and Charter of the United Nations” and usually reply was “Well yes, but that is only thing you have. What is else?” Oh, I didn’t realize that’s not enough. Of course it wasn’t enough. And why? Because International Law can be changed, depends of the issue because of something I’ll be accused, charged, executed you could be awarded! The only catch is what’s in judges’ interest, right?

3. My friend in his e-mail mentioned democratic values, he even said how his country “tries to promote democracy worldwide”; my comment on that is that he doesn’t realize enormously fortunate fact that he’s not familiar with the methods of achieving this noble goal his country has and how he’s blessed cause he doesn’t know how many faces that “democracy” has, again depends of the issue and the interest.

4. Not only he, everyone is talking about democracy and law and how these two will be the fundament of this newborn country. But somehow everyone is neglecting the fact that this newborn has been conceived precisely by flagrant violation of those fundamental values. As if they said “I was nasty but don’t punish me. Close your eyes just this time and I promise I’ll be good in future” and big players closed their eyes. Or they even turned their back completely. They avoided Security Council UNO, they neglected their own laws, the same scenario they used with NATO aggression on Yugoslavia. Of course this is still the same film so why would methods be different?

5. It’s so disgusting to read statements from international community how “Serbia is a friend, ally in both World War who has scarified so much” (indeed Serbia is a country who suffered the most of all countries in WWI. 33% of entire population or 60% male population of Serbia lost their lives).

There are statements that says that “Serbs are our Christian brothers”; well why don’t you look what you have done to your Christian brothers:

6.

Dozens of churches, monasteries and shrines have been destroyed or damaged since the UN military forces came 1999 in Kosovo, the cradle of Orthodox Christianity in Serbia. The Serbian Orthodox Church lists nearly 150 attacks on holy places, which often involve desecration of altars, vandalism of icons and the ripping of crosses from Church rooftops. 800 houses and 29 Serb Orthodox churches and monasteries – some of them dating to the 14th century — were torched in only few days (these are data from March 2004).

7. 15th century Devic Monastery:

You can click on these images to see Serbian religious and historical heritage on Kosovo:

8. All this happened despite the presence of UN peacekeeping forces.
And you awarded them with a country. It seems some instances of ethnic cleansing are more acceptable than others.

9. Yes, other friend of mine posted a comment on my previous blog post and she said that “Changes are scary”. Oh indeed but I’m not sure that we think about the same thing. She probably meant on changes here (on local level) but in reality the worst change and the scariest one is on global level: law has been dismissed! Everything is possible now when Pandora’s Box is open. Declaration of independence of Kosovo is a means towards legitimizing the dissolution and breaking up of sovereign states on a global scale. Gosh well known politician and “expert” for Balkan Carl Bildt said “we must preserve at
least a semblance of international law”
about recognize this independence. (here I don’t have a comment)

10. Of course many other regions want to declare independence as well but big player said “Kosovo is a unique case”. Oh? Why’s that? Maybe because the biggest US military camp Bondsteel is there and not in Abkhazia or South Ossetia or Nagorno-Karabakh or Taiwan or Palestine or Basque province or Catalonia? You’re not familiar with that camp? Oh just wait, soon you’ll watch braking news from there because 11. the Kosovo declaration of independence was a declaration of dependency and surrender to colonial forces. And I’m not sure if they (Kosovars) realizing that. You should know that Kosovo prime minister was a commander of KLA (Kosovo Liberation Army), drug-smuggling, arms-trafficking terrorist organization which is still active. The KLA was among the first international terrorist groups linked to al Qaeda in the late 1990s. Western intelligence agencies observed its members training at al Qaeda terror camps a decade ago and more. It was listed as a terrorist organization by CIA but in spite that it has been supported by US government.

12. Without any doubts Kosovo would have had greater independence as an autonomous province in an agreement of autonomy with Serbia but the talks between Serbia and Kosovo were never meant to succeed because the US was determined to establish another protectorate in the former Yugoslavia. During last session of negotiations they were stressing that if negotiation failed the only solution will be independence and that they are willing to accept it. Under those circumstances what motivation Kosovo team had for further negotiation? Kosovo leaders just waited deadline to do what they’ve done.

13. And they have transformed their land into a colonial outpost of Anglo-American interest. Under the so-called independence roadmap, NATO and E.U. troops and police officers will formally administer Kosovo. And if you think the KLA will accept that, you don’t have a clue how wrong you are, you’re breast-feeding a snake (we know, we’ve been there, fight against terrorism didn’t wait 9/11).
In God you trust? Well if you’re doing all this in the name of your God then he is not God I believe in but do pray your God that you have enough milk.

P.S.
If you’d like to leave your comment please scroll up!

Thursday Thirteen

1. Every nation has 1 date in its history which it considers more important than any other. For the Serbs, the most important date in their history is June 15, by the old calendar – June 28, by the new calendar (Vidovdan).
2. On that day, in 1389, 618 years ago, Serbian and Turkish armies clashed on the Kosovo Field. Both the Serbian ruler Tzar Lazar and the Turkish Sultan Murad I died as a result of the battle. Based on many of the Turkish historical records, it is believed that th
e Sultan was killed by Miloš Obilić who was pretending to be dead, while the Sultan was walking in the battlefield after the battle. On the other hand, in one account in Serbian records he was assassinated by Miloš Obilić, who made his way into the Turkish camp on the pretext of being a deserter and knelt before the Sultan. He stabbed him in the stomach while kneeling before him.

3. According to historical documents neither the Serbs nor the Turks won the battle, Serbia was so exhausted that it was unable to continue resisting the Turks’a few decades later the heirs of Prince Lazar recognized Turkish suzerainty and 5 centuries of domination of the Serbs by the Turks ensued. That long and martyrlike enslavement changed the course of Serbian history and interrupted the cultural progress of the Serbs, which was clearly evident during the rule of the Nemanja dynasty.

4. It is difficult to assess the importance of the Kosovo Battle for world history. Such is also the case with the battles at the Alamo or Gettysburg, which are so important for American history. However, it is undeniable that the Battle of Kosovo was exceptionally significant not only for Serbia, but also for Europe and European Christian civilization. (The Painting is “The Kosovo Maiden” by Uroš Predić 1857-1953) The Kosovo Maiden

5. It is a fact that on Vidovdan, June 28, 1389, the Serbs, without help from a single European nation, defended on Kosovo Field not only the frontiers of their own territory and lives of their people, but, at the risk of losing their national independence, they also defended the interests and security of Christian Europe. In the conflict of 2 rival civilizations, the Muslim and the Christian, the Serbs checked the wave of the Turkish invasion, interposed themselves as a wall between the Turks and Europe, and enabled Europe to make preparations for its own defense. 6. It is questionable whether the history of Europe would have been the same without the Battle of Kosovo and the sacrifice of the Serbian nation.

7. No matter how great the historical value of Kosovo and Vidovdan may be, for the Serbs they have an additional unique dimension and preeminence. Persons of non-Serbian origin may consider Kosovo as only a far-away, strange, and, even, unimportant geographical territory, and Vidovdan, June 28, 1389, as a date of a battle of which they know little or nothing. 8. As far as the Serbs are concerned, Kosovo is their Holy Land, the cradle of Serbdom, and their inalienable, historical, national, and cultural heritage. As far as they are concerned, Vidovdan, June 28, 1389, is not just the date of a battle, but their nation’s identity, and the sacred will and testament which contains religious, ethical, and national principles for all Serbian generations from the Kosovo Battle until the present. 9. In the national consciousness all of Serbian history is divided into 2 periods: prior to the Kosovo Battle and after the Kosovo Battle.

10. As a geographical territory, Kosovo was Serbian even before the year 1389, before Vidovdan. That ownership was not marked by sticks, in the way the prospectors for gold marked their claims, nor by the deeds written in ink on paper, but by ancient and magnificent churches and monasteries and by Serbian cemeteries and tombstones. The capitals of Serbian kings and the thrones of Serbian archbishops and patriarchs were in Kosovo.

11. In the course of 6 centuries the geographical boundaries and demographic constituency of Kosovo, as well as the political and social conditions have changed. Serbs, who represented a majority in Kosovo, have been reduced to a minority. Uncontrolled migration of thousands of people from neighboring Albania to Kosovo on one hand and, on the other, mass exodus of Serbs from that territory, because of the merciless oppression to which the Serbs have been subjected by the newcomers, especially in the period 1943-1988, has changed the status of the Serbian population from a majority to a minority. Atrocities, unheard of even in uncivilized countries, have been perpetuated against the Serbian population in Kosovo. (Observe the eyes of Queen Simonida; an Albanian has dug out her eyes. It is fresco from the Gracanica monastery built between 1317-1321)

12. This is why we say that Kosovo is Serbian Golgotha. It is the Cross through which one nation entered into eternity and uncovered the eternal and divine dimensions of its existence.

13. After arrival of UN forces in the province more than 200 churches and monasteries have been destroyed. Majority from 12th-14th century; some of targeted monasteries are part of UNESCO World Heritage.

(PS
My apologize to everyone who have left comments here and whose blogs I can’t visit. Namely I still have problem to open certain blogs (not all) on blogger.)

EDIT TO ADD:

I have been asked to explain how is celebrated today.

Vidovdan is religious day; it is the Day of St Vitus (in Serbian St Vid (“Vid” is a name but also in Serbian means “Eyesight”). St Vid was a healer especially he was healing problems with eyes. But as of Battle of Kosovo Serbian Orthodox Church is celebrating that day as day of St Vid but also as the day of Holly Tsar Lazar and holly warriors of Kosovo.

In every Serbian Orthodox church in the world there are liturgy and requiem for all victims of Kosovo, from 1389 ‘till the present day. That’s why today is not happy day, we shouldn’t sing or dance today.

Vidovdan commemorations, which have been celebrated annually for centuries on the field where battle has been, are reconfirmations of both the Serbian ownership of Kosovo and of the Vidovdan-Kosovo ethics, which are the core of the Serbian national image and the essence of Serbian identity.

It should be emphasized that the Vidovdan commemorations are not celebrations of a Serbian military victory over the Turks, for the Serbs were not victorious in the Kosovo Battle. However, it is incorrect, and even malicious, to claim that at Vidovdan commemorations the Serbs “celebrate their defeat in the Kosovo Battle.”

On those occasions the Serbs honor and commemorate the heroes of Kosovo who laid down their lives defending their faith, freedom, nation, and country. At the same time, Vidovdan commemorations are the annual reviews of the post-Kosovo Serbian generations. They are evaluated in terms of Vidovdan-Kosovo ethics and on the basis of their reconfirmation of the Pledge of Kosovo. On Vidovdan, June 28, 1389, on the Kosovo Field, the Serbs chose once and for all their religious, cultural, ethical, and national identity. Their choice, in the form of an unwritten pledge, was handed down to all post-Kosovo Serbian generations and, through 600 years, Serbs have lived by that pledge.

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